Global cartographies projected from ‘the bottom of the world’ show how nationally framed cities can be also be globally connected. There are five official international ‘gateways’ to Antarctica:
- Cape Town, South Africa
- Christchurch, New Zealand
- Hobart, Australia
- Punta Arenas, Chile
- Ushuaia, Argentina
Although there is no formal relationship between these five cities, they are recognized as the main international points of departure to and from the Antarctic region. All significant engagement with Antarctica currently goes through these cities. However, this status is both politically fragile and economically uneven. While each of these port cities is formed by long and complex histories of engagement with Antarctica, the role of a ‘gateway city’ is today predominantly treated as a limited functional one. This project is exploring how the function of being a spatial gateway might be lifted to a general relationship of custodialship, recognized both locally and globally.
- Juan Salazar, University of Western Sydney, Australia (Convenor)
- Paul James, University of Western Sydney, Australia
- Liam Magee, University of Western Sydney, Australia
- Elizabeth Leane, University of Tasmania, Australia
- Daniela Liggett, University of Canterbury, New Zealand
- Elias Barticevic, Instituto Antártico Chileno, Chile
From a functional perspective, the five gateway cities sit in the deep Global South in geographical proximity to a massive and contested territory. From a broader perspective, the cities have a complex relationship to Antarctica. This project seeks to understand what alternative futures are possible for these five cities in respect of three layers of relationships: 1. to Antarctica; 2. to each other; and 3. to the network of cities around the world from which people come to travel to Antarctica.
The core question addressed by the present proposal concerns the possibility, beginning to be expressed by the cities themselves, of reimagining the current largely functional role as one of custodianship within a local, regional and globalizing network of broader economic, ecological, political and cultural relations. In a world where we are seeing a renewed intensification of national-interest rivalries (particularly over resource management, evidenced by the climate change negotiations) and severe qualification of the negotiation of global protocols, the shift from ‘gateway cities’ to ‘custodial cities’ is a complicated one. The project is working to show on what basis and in what ways this might be achievable, and how it might provide an important exemplary illustration of what is possible for other eco-zones and cultural-political zones.
The project is exploring three themes around the central question of what it would mean — ecologically, economically, politically and culturally — to reconfigure the ‘Gateway Cites’ as ‘Custodial Cities’:
1. Local Antarctic Imaginaries
To what extent is the Antarctic connection important to the formation of the contemporary urban identities of each of these Gateway Cities? All five cities have historical, geopolitical and economic connections with different regions of Antarctica, and this appears to have significant consequences for each of the cities. Perhaps with the exception of Cape Town, it is possible to observe in all the cities the palpable mobilization of memories of past events, narratives of polar exploration, and traces of material culture, both in the production of geopolitical and cultural imaginaries and in promotion of eco-polar heritage tourism. In Hobart, Punta Arenas and Christchurch it is also possible to observe an emerging cultural economy sector linked to Antarctic heritage. Understanding the depth of this cultural engagement is foundational to drawing conclusions about whether the current functional role as transport hubs could be drawn into a more comprehensive custodial role.
2. Regional Antarctic City-to-City Relations
What are the possibilities for urban collaboration between the five cities, particularly in the face of intense national interest considerations between Australia, New Zealand, Chile, Argentina and South Africa, considerations that currently qualify any simple relationship between the gateway cities? Without such collaboration, however, each of the gateways remain vulnerable to inter-city or national rivalries or to displacement as emerging national interests explore other ways of staking a claim to Antarctica. Moreover, without such collaboration, the possibility of the Antarctic cities understanding themselves collectively as located in an integrated eco-zone is severely qualified.
3. Global Antarctic City-to-City Relations
What are the global patterns of movement through the gateway cities, and what kinds of networks of relations are formed by that movement? While the data is available about the various movements of people and from what places, there is still no systematic mapping of the patterns of people movement: tourists, scientists, technicians, and military, etc.
Five Cities that could Change the Future of Antarctica
Antarctica is at a crossroads. This frozen continent at the bottom of our planet has the potential to either become one of the most fiercely contested zones in the world, or the most collaborative.
Antarctica is one of four internationally recognised global commons along with the atmosphere, the high seas and outer space. These are all areas that have historically been guided by the principle of the common heritage of humankind.
The continent is governed by the Antarctic Treaty System, a complex set of arrangements developed to regulate relations between states with interests and territorial claims in the region. As of today, 29 states are “consultative parties” to the treaty. They demonstrate their interest in Antarctica by carrying out substantial scientific activity there.
Several states have very specific and long-standing interests in Antarctica, which not only determine national policies about engaging with the continent, but can also complicate those engagements. Seven have territorial claims including the United Kingdom, France, Norway, Australia, New Zealand, Argentina and Chile.
In 2007, the UK made a submission to the United Nations to claim more than a million square kilometre of seabeds, and in 2012 it renamed an area as Queen Elizabeth Land. Both instances led to diplomatic tension with Argentina.
Despite ongoing competing claims over the Antarctic and increasing interest in its resources, this is also a moment of remarkable opportunity for collaboration.
One example of such collaboration is the possibility of creating a large marine protected area in the Ross Sea in East Antarctica.
Meet the Five Gateway Cities
Which path will Antarctica take? The answer may lie with five cities in the planet’s deep south: Cape Town (South Africa), Christchurch (New Zealand), Hobart (Australia), Punta Arenas (Chile), and Ushuaia (Argentina).
These cities are the most connected to the Antarctic in the world. They are formally recognised international gateways through which most travel to the region flows. All significant engagement with the Southern Polar Region is co-ordinated through them, but the ensuing competition for economic advantage that this traffic offers is not always constructive.
We rarely consider the role that urban centres play in humanity’s relationship with the world’s most desolate, extreme continent. But in these cities, Antarctica has exercised a powerful hold on the urban imagination since the late 19th century.
All five cities are small in size and population and, with the exception of Cape Town, do not fit the profile of a global city. But that might change if we consider their influence over an entire region; the high percentage of residents employed in the scientific research and logistics sector; and the fact that they host some of the best educational, tourism, and entertainment facilities in relation to the Antarctic region.
Due to its proximity to Antarctica – around 1000 kilometres – Ushuaia is today by far the most popular gateway for Antarctic tourism, capturing close to 90% of the more than 35,000 tourists who travel each year to the Antarctic. But it has yet to act as a base for any national Antarctic science programmes.
Since 2007, Ushuaia has hosted the Biennial of Contemporary Art at the End of the World an international arts forum with the motto “Think at the end of the world, another world is possible”.
Punta Arenas (population 125,000) was founded in 1848 as a penal colony by the Chilean government, and later served as destination for the settlement of European immigrants. Until the construction of the Panama Canal in 1910, its port was key in the commercial route linking the Atlantic and the Pacific.
Punta Arenas was a key site and principal point of reference for many of the early Antarctic scientific expeditions. The city is dotted with these stories. Among the most important is the 1916 failed Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition by Sir Ernest Shackleton. This year Punta Arenas celebrated the centenary of the rescue by the Chilean Navy officer Piloto Pardo of Shackleton’s stranded crew in Antarctica.
Most important, the national Antarctic programmes of more than 20 countries use Punta Arenas as a gateway to the continent – a higher number than any other gateway city.
This is partly due to logistical advantages and the geographical proximity to the Antarctic Peninsula (about 1,300 kilometres), the area of Antarctica that hosts the largest concentration of scientific research stations on the continent, and arguably the world.
Punta Arenas is at the centre of a new ambitious development plan seeking to improve its infrastructure and generate new forms of Antarctic culture and identity in the Magallanes region. These include a School Antarctic Fair, a unique initiative in which school students compete for a coveted trip to the frozen continent to work with scientists.
Christchurch’s historic links with Antarctica and tributes to early explorers – such as Captain Robert Falcon Scott – are evident, and made accessible through central city walking trails. While it has yet to attract significant Antarctic tourism operations, Christchurch has arguably the most developed cultural sector of all Antarctic cities – perhaps only comparable to Hobart.
In 1992, the International Antarctic Centre – an education and outreach facility – was opened in a precinct that includes the passenger terminals of Christchurch Airport and the New Zealand Antarctic programme offices. The city also hosts the NZ IceFest – a public festival celebrating all things Antarctica. And since 2016, it houses a new Antarctic Office tasked with developing plans to become a world-leading research hub.
Hobart (population 225,000) was founded in 1803, also as a penal colony. It’s Australia’s second-oldest capital city after Sydney.
It has the most complete infrastructure of any gateway city, hosting the largest critical mass of Antarctic scientists and scholars anywhere in the world with world-class research and education institutions. This is the result of a decision made in 1981 to move the Australian Antarctic Program to Hobart from Canberra, which in hindsight marked an economic and cultural turning point for both the city and the state of Tasmania.
In the early 1990s, the local government created the Tasmanian Polar Network, which represents the considerable Antarctic and Southern Ocean business and science sector. Hobart’s claim to its gateway status is logistical, economic and scientific (primarily for the French and Chinese Antarctic programmes).
In the Southern Hemisphere summer of 2011/12, Hobart hosted a range of big cultural events celebrating the centenary of Antarctic expeditions by Sir Douglas Mawson and Roald Amundsen. Today, the city’s gateway status is also increasingly shored up by heritage tourism: a growing list of polar tourist attractions including permanent museum exhibitions and a new Australian Antarctic Festival launched in 2016.
Cape Town (population 3.75 million) has a completely different history to the other four gateway cities. Founded in 1652 as a key site in the commercial route between Europe and the East Indies, Cape Town is an order of magnitude bigger than the next largest gateway and is one of the most multicultural cities in the world.
Situated further from Antarctica than the other cities, Cape Town sees its potential in building up research and logistics services, and in being closer to both European tourist-generating regions and key national Antarctic programmes, such as those of Russia, Germany, Belgium, Norway and Japan.
Each of these cities has a complex relationship with the Antarctic that goes back hundreds of years. But they have only recently acquired international relevance as entry points for tourists and workers travelling to Antarctica.
A formal memorandum of understanding between the five cities was signed in 2009, binding them to explore the benefits of exchanging expertise about the continent. Nonetheless, a substantive relationship between them remains tenuous.
It is time we rethink both the outlook of these cities – not as five far-flung ports competing for the same northern hemisphere capital and investments, but as members of a network that can learn from and benefit each other.
The future of the Antarctic hangs in the balance and these cities have a key role to play in securing the future of this fragile continent.
A new approach is crucial. The cities should not just act as thoroughfares, but also as urban centres that embody the cosmopolitan values associated with Antarctic custodianship: international cooperation, scientific innovation, and ecological protection.
Through ecological stewardship, political cooperation, cultural vibrancy and economic prosperity – benefits that can be mutually reinforcing – these cities could change their future relationship with Antarctica, and each other.
Juan Francisco Salazar, Associate Professor, School of Humanities and Communication Arts, Western Sydney University; Elizabeth Leane, Assoc. Professor of English and ARC Future Fellow, University of Tasmania; Liam Magee, Senior Research Fellow, Digital Media, Western Sydney University, and Paul James, Professor of Globalization and Cultural Diversity, Western Sydney University